Grant Year: 2016

January 14, 2020

The Value of Respect: Reclaiming the Philosophical and Political Foundations of Informed Consent for the Era of Big “Things”

The proliferation of sensors, social networks, and massive data repositories presents an unprecedented opportunity to study human behavior. But this opportunity poses new challenges to the protection of individuals and groups by respecting privacy and autonomy, ensuring data security, and considering unforeseen consequences. Organizations have been left with research ethics…

January 14, 2020

Operationalizing Privacy for Open Data Initiatives: A Guide for Cities

Open data is a powerful tool for supporting digital citizenship. Sharing government data with the public can enable transparency, encourage civic participation, and empower communities. However, the information can be sensitive or carry privacy implications. Compliance with relevant laws and studying potential consequences can make the process costly for individual…

January 14, 2020

Constructing Intermediary Policies to Effectively Deter Financially-Motivate?d Cyber Criminals

In recent years, policymakers have changed their approach to regulating financially-motivated cybercrime. Instead of pursuing individual bad actors, new policies seek to alter the structural relationships in cybercrime by regulating intermediaries used by computer criminals. These include: financial disincentives, financial account closures, asset seizers and blacklisting individuals from interacting with…

January 14, 2020

Cybersecurity: Meaning and Practice

There is little empirical research documenting the various meanings of cybersecurity in use in distinct communities, their relationships, and the activities they drive in practice. This project, “Cybersecurity: Meaning and Practice” seeks to expand upon the examination of cybersecurity’s meaning using the theoretical framework of “securitization” (Nissenbaum 2005) and explore…

January 14, 2020

Social Media Data and Cybersecurity

With the rise of Big Data and the tools of data science, researchers have begun to develop new predictive algorithms on people and society, making inferences about their health, well-being and livelihoods from vast streams of data. This research program will examine the scientific validity of an increasingly popular though…

January 14, 2020

Illuminating and Defending Against Targeted Government Surveillance of Activists

This effort focuses on developing a deeper understanding of the nature, scope and prevalence of abusive state-level surveillance and its extra-judicial use as a potent form of social control, as seen through the lens of targeted surveillance of activists and political opponents. Drawing upon a network of targeted individuals and…

January 14, 2020

Cybercrime Science: Understanding Cybercriminal Networks and the Effect of Disruption

As technology evolves, abuse and cybercrime evolve with it. Cybercriminals today abuse and monetize every aspect of technology. However, understanding how criminals make profit from online abuse and the effective ways of disrupting criminal efforts is still ad hoc, often based off of anecdotal evidence, specific to a particular cybercrime…

January 14, 2020

Corrigibility in Artificial Intelligence Systems

This project will focus on basic security issues for advanced AI systems. It anticipates a time when AI systems are capable of devising behaviors that circumvent simple security policies such as “turning the machine off.” These behaviors, which may include deceiving human operators and disabling the “off” switch, result not…

January 14, 2020

The Internet’s Challenge to the State

The Internet is the latest in a long line of technologies promising to connect ever-increasing numbers of people. Despite obvious benefits, however, its potentially disruptive consequences for commerce, daily life, and governance are innumerable. Various actors including civil society, NGOs, international organizations, terrorist groups, and hacker collectives are now able…

January 14, 2020

Blazar: Secure and Practical Program Hardening

One root cause of cyber security threat is vulnerabilities in programs. Complex software inevitably have vulnerabilities which can allow attackers to exploit to compromise the system. We propose to design and develop a hardening solution to protect programs from attacks even when they may contain vulnerabilities. In particular, we propose…